Tuesday, 27 November 2007

A hidden natural explanation

Suppose that a universal truth about the natural world can be discovered that requires the examination of such evidence that it seems, foe various reasons to begin with,quite improbable if not impoossible that that such a discovery could be made.

So that a general theory could be developed only if enough natural and experimental evidence is examined together, and an appropriate hypothesis and methods are justified and devised, to describe enough details of a cause from its effects upon matter and energy in addition to the effects of all the forces.

So although, first of all, the experimental findings of quantum physics need to be considered, the theory cannot be sufficiently supported or developed just from any evidence found of matter or the energy it radiates in the world on the smallest scale.

But it is found that a hypothesis of a kind that is quite new to physics can be justified and constructed from the findings described by quantum mechanics as well as other small scale evidence. And only from this quantum hypothesis that represents details of a further cause that can only be described from its effects, is it possible to adequately support a general theory that can be applied to large scale observable evidence of where the cause acts in addition to the causes that have been called forces.

These causes include the fundamental interactions called gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear weak and strong forces. So that the effects of this additional cause on the small scale are the quantum behaviour called wave, spin and entanglement and, in general, the persistence of the form and organisation of atoms and molecules despite the action of all the forces.

Thus, by acting constantly so as to produce the wave, spin and entanglement of the subatomic components of matter, the cause results in atoms and molecules remaining in their organised forms and so resist the forces acting within and upon them, and even though from the results of many experiments matter has been found to consist almost all of the space between its subatomic component parts.

Sunday, 23 September 2007

Introduction to a hypothesis

The notion of ‘‘measurement’’ plays a fundamental role in
conventional formulations of quantum mechanics. Indeed,
quantum mechanics is often presented as merely an algorithm
that takes you from one measurement -‘‘state preparation’’
involves selecting a particular output channel from a
measurement apparatus - to another. John Bell railed eloquently
against this. Why should the scope of physics be
restricted to the artificial contrivances we are forced to resort
to in our efforts to probe the world? Why should a fundamental
theory have to take its meaning from a notion of
‘‘measurement’’ external to the theory itself? Should not the
meaning of ‘‘measurement’’ emerge from the theory, rather
than the other way around? Should not physics be able to
make statements about the unmeasured, unprepared world?

To restrict quantum mechanics to be exclusively
about piddling laboratory operations is to betray
the great enterprise. A serious formulation will
not exclude the big world outside of the laboratory.

N. David Mermin

From What is quantum mechanics trying to tell us?

Wednesday, 12 September 2007

Reasons have been found from the appropriate natural and experimental evidence to propose that:

For there to be any structure, organisation or form of matter at all as atoms, molecules and living organisms a distinct cause needs to act universally and constantly in addition to all the forces.

Unlike all the forces, the action of this additional cause is form, structure and organisation maintaining or conserving. So that atomic, molecular and organic systems of subatomic components can resist the action of all the forces acting within and upon them.

The quantum mechanics that describes the wave, spin and entanglement behaviour of photons and subatomic components indicates that the action this form (etc.) conserving cause is nonlocal by producing invariable effects at any distance and so cannot be described as surrounding objects in 3D space. The most direct and longest distance experimental evidence of these invariable effects have been measured of the correlations between beams of entangled photons. While electrons, protons and atoms can also be described as being entangled in composite states. And it can be considered that for these correlations to be measured a cause needs to act at a distance between quantum obects so as maintain or conserve the correlations.

By producing appropriate diagrams that indirectly represent the further cause as acting from two additional dimensions of space and then relatiing these diagrams to certain problems of mind and consciousness, it can be explained how the cause can act extra-dimensionally so as to conserve the forms of all the elements and compounds and the species of living organisms.

Also, by describing in enough detail the nature of a nonlocal and extra-dimensional cause of quantum wave behaviour, reasons can be found to consider that this cause could act in addition to the forces on the astronomical scale and explain the large scale structure as the galaxies of stars and planetary systems, galactic clusters and cosmic voids and without the need for an inflation theory or WIMP dark matter.

Wednesday, 22 August 2007

Could there be a cause that acts universally in addition to the known forces?

Just by considering the known details that have been measured and described of the forces in relation to the subatomic organisation of matter into the atoms and molecules of the elements and compounds as well as the species of living organisms it could be asked:

Can a physics of the forces alone explain how the universe is the way that it is?

That is, a physics where the evidence can be considered to indicate that, universally, the world that includes all life on Earth consists just of its smallest parts, and the forces that surround such subatomic components of matter?

Or if it is supposed that there could be a scientific account that may be called a 'theory of everything', it could be asked:

Shouldn't such a theory explain how the universe is the way that it is despite the evidence indicating that the universe is made just of it's smallest parts and the forces that surround such subatomic components of matter?

So that it could be wondered whether the evidence of matter and radiant energy on the smallest scale indicates that, to explain how matter can be and remain in all its atomic and molecular forms and despite the forces, enough details somehow need to be found and described of a further cause that would act in a quite different way to all the forces?

For one can just point out that the experimental evidence indicates that matter in general as atoms and molecules consists almost all of the space between its universal components called electrons and atomic nuclei and that the powerful charge force is measured to attract between the electrons and nuclei and repel between the electrons. Hence it can be asked: given the action of just this force between these subatomic components, how can matter be and remain organised as atoms and molecules, and so how could matter in any observable form exist or persist at all? Doesn't matter in general, somehow, exist despite the forces acting within it?

Then the thought could be that, at least just from any kind of experimental evidence that has been found of atoms and molecules and their subatomic components, it is not possible to find a clear and adequate answer to these questions in any case. The reason being basically that such an answer would require certain behaviour that has been measured and described of the subatomic components of matter to be clearly explained as the effects of a distinct cause that would act universally in addition to all the forces. And the universal action of this cause upon atoms and molecules would be just to maintain or conserve their forms and subatomic organisation.

The quantum behaviour that needs to be causally explained is that which has been uniquely described of quantum objects and has been found impossible to directly observe or measure from objects in motion in any experiment. So it has been open to question as to whether this quantum behaviour actually exists beyond the experimental results or if it does exist, whether it has any cause at all or, at least, has any cause that could be described in clear and detailed enough terms from it effects. This behaviour has been called quantum wave, spin and entanglement.

So physicists these days, at least, generally suppose that quantum entanglement - which is an effect that has been measured and described as occurring at a distance between both photons of light and between matter particles as components of atoms - has no cause.

The entanglement effect has no measurable strength and has not been measured to reduce, cease or weaken in any way with increasing distance between objects and so has been called non-local to distinguish it from the local effects of all the forces. So that any cause of quantum entanglement could not be described as surrounding objects like the forces that act at a distance, also called the fundamental interactions, such as gravity and electromagnetism or the charge force. The record distance that entanglement has been experimentally detected so far is 90 miles or 144 kilometres between beams of light, as measured in a
recent experiment in the Canary Islands.

However, it can be pointed out that what can be measured as effects between quantum objects are relationships or correlations between certain forms of behaviour. So electrons as components of atoms can be described as being in entangled pairs where the correlation of behaviour is spin up in one particle and spin down in the other. And thus one can insist that, while no pull or push or attract or repel cause can be measured, there needs to be some cause that maintains these correlations.

Then the thought could be that while a non-locally acting cause of quantum entanglement could not be described as surrounding objects in three dimensional space it could act in additional spatial dimensions to the three in the world we experience. And although a cause acting in any such extra dimensions could not be directly represented, such a cause acting upon two quantum objects in one such extra dimension could be represented three dimensionally as follows: So that here the non-local quantum entanglement cause is represented as acting from a third dimension upon two dimensional objects in a two dimensional world and so without surrounding the objects. Although reasons can found to consider that the entanglement of two or more quantum objects would require a cause to act from two extra dimensions of space.

For a detailed quantum hypothesis that is considered in relation to large scale observable natural evidence see: